See also: Second Russian Civil War
The Second Russian Civil War was a conflict primarily based in Russia, Central Asia, and the middle eastern nation of Yemen. It involved Russian Loyalists, heavily supported by American and British forces, against the Ultranationalist rebels led by Imran Zakhaev and their Middle Eastern allies, codenamed OpFor (Opposing Force), led by Khaled Al-Asad.
See also: 1993 Russian constitutional crisis
In 1993, the Russian government had a stand-oof with the Russian President, Boris Yeltsin, over his decision to dissolve both houses of government whereas the Russian Consitution forbade the President from doing so. The relations between the president and the parliament had been deteriorating for some time. In response, the parliament declared that the president's decision was null and void, impeached Yeltsin and proclaimed vice president Aleksandr Rutskoy to be acting president. A pro-Parliament militia, headed by former Red Army General Imran Zakhaev, was fromed to storm the mayor's office and a television centre. The army, which had initially declared its neutrality, stormed the Supreme Soviet building in the early morning hours of October 4 by Yeltsin's order, and arrested the leaders of the resistance. All the rival leaders of the crisis, including Zakaev, were released on February 26, 1994.
Zakaev went underground arms dealing and formed the Ultranationalist Party, in militant opposition to the Russian Government and the President. In 1996, the British government authorized its first assassination order since the Second World War on Zakhaev, who was selling fuel rods salvaged from the ruined Chernobyl Nuclear Power plant. Zakhaev survived the attempt on his life, with the loss of his arm.
Course of WarEdit
Pre-War Events Edit
Ultranationalist Attacks Edit
Starting from 2001, the Ultranationalists orchestrate several terrorist attacks on both domestic and international targets. The Utranationalists were behind a Moscow city bus bombing, leaving 29 people dead and 19 injured. Later in the year, the would massacre 87 people in a GUM mall in Moscow.
In 2002, the Ultranationalists executed their first international attack by hijacking a Greek oil tanker in the Mediterranean Sea . A ransom of US$3 million was paid, but not before 2 members of the Greek Navy were killed. Though Russian Government announced they would work with Greek authorities to try and find those who were responsible, the culprits were never found.
Between 2003 and 2005, it had been reported that the Ultranationalists were behind at least 6 high profile attacks, raging from extortion to terrorism, both within Russia and abroad. Moscow-based journalist Ilya Lovitch in response to rumours the Ultranationalists were supporting North Caucasus-based, pro-Western nationalist groups. The Ultranationalists bombs several high government buildings in Kazakhstan, killing 245 people. Two Kriegler Airliner planes were reportedly hijacked and crashed by Ultranationalist-supported cadres, leaving 378 people dead, including 8 terrorists. They alao bomb two African embassies, leaving 28 dead and 48 injured.
The Ultranationalists raids an unknown number of bullion trucks in Moscow, steals 3 million rubles and kills 3 security guards. Ultranationalists also hijack an unknown number of cruise ships in the Baltic Sea, torturing 3 US passengers until the $5 million ransom is paid.
2005 London Bombings Edit
On June 7 2005, four Islamist extremists separately detonated three bombs in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city, and later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. 52 people were killed and over 700 more were injured in the attacks, making it Britain's worst terrorist incident since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, as well as the country's first ever Islamist suicide attack.
Later investigations determined that these attacks were co-organised and co-executed by Russian Ultranationalists. Since the terror attacks began internationally, there had been increasing pressure put on Russia by the international community to crack down on Ultranationalist aggression. This was met by verbal concessions by the Russian ambassadors, UN representative and even president Vladimir Putin. Once the rumours of Ultranationalist involvement in the bombing became true, the UN announced sanctions if the Russian government did not announce action against the Ultranationalists.
The War Begins Edit
President Putin declares war on the Ultranationalists on 1 July 2005, vowing to bring the Ultranationalists to justice in light of the London bombing. Despite this, small offensives were made by the Russian military against the Ultranationalists for a few years. What little major offesnsives they had were undertaken within their broader counter-insurgency in the Caucusus and during the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.
On August 17 2008, after announcing their successes in the Russo-Georgian War and the Caucusus insurgencies, President Medvedev announced that Russia's armed forces are not 100% focused on reducing and eliminating the Ultranationalist rebellion. This led to more attacks by the Ultranationalists, but these were increasingly thwarted by local authorities. In 2009, the Ultranationalists fail to bomb and English-speaking school in Moscow. A Russian Premier League Match between FC Moscow and FC Krylia Sovetov Samara was cancelled to a broken gas pipe. However, it was revealed that Ultranationalists had rigged explosives to the main in order to set it off during a match.
2009 St. Petersburg IKEA Bombing Edit
In 2009, the Ultranationalist launched an attack on an IKEA store in St. Petersburg, killing 100. This led to the newly installed Russian President Dimitry Medvedev to announced more resources be allocated to eliminating the Ultranationalist threat.
2011 Yemeni Revolution Edit
See also: 2011 Yemeni Revolution
In early 2011, opposition groups in Yemen called for President Yasir Al-Fulani to end his three-decade-long rule because of his perceived lack of democratic reform, widespread corruption and the claimed human rights abuses carried out by him and his allies. Al-Fulani made attempts to quell the uprising by agreeing to cede power to his Vice President under a 30-day transition plan. However, on May 23, Al-Fulani refused to sign the agreement, leading to renewed protests.
Before the war, Zakhaev realized that a Russian Civil War, with 15,000 nuclear weapons on the line, would gain a high level of Western attention, especially United States and United Kingdom who both were supporting current Russian regime. In order to cause a diversionary war, he contacted his Yemeni ally, Khaled Al-Asad. Al-Asad would launch a coup d'état against the government of Yemen, all funded and supported by the Ultranationalist party. Al-Asad's forces would become known as OpFor, or Opposing Force, by the United States military.
Al-Asad's coup d'état was completed with the execution of the President Yasir Al-Fulani on national television on June 18 2011. His country, despite advertising an upcoming peace within the nation, was remarkably unstable with repeated atrocities committed by Al-Asad's forces against anyone who opposed him.
On June 19th, the United States Marine Corp invaded Yemen through it's port facilities in Al Hudaydah and Aden. Reports had speculated that Al-Asad was held up in a television station in Aden, but these proved false. By the evening of June 20th, the forces reached the nation's capital of Sana'a. Heavy fighting was observed throughout the city. SEAL Team Six was dispatched towards the presidential palace in the al-Sabeen district in southern Sana'a. Instead of Al-Asad, they discover a nuclear device. All remaining marines are evacuated from the city.
At 18:09pm local time, the device was detonated from within the presidential compound, devastating Sana'a and causing 575,000 fatalities, including 30,000 marines, with almost another 600,000 injured. Most of the city was destroyed, but luckily the old city survived, albeit severely damaged and irradiated. The Yemeni government is in disarray and soon, various political factions and tribal groups assume large swathes of territory.
Released British intelligence documents reveal that Al-Asad had scarpered from Sana'a before the disaster, and that he was seeking refuge in Azerbaijan. A SAS team was sent to extract or eliminate him. Al-Asad was killed in action, which also included Russian Ultranatonalists in the area.
Death of Zakaev Edit
Imran Zakhaev was killed on June 22nd, in the Altay Mountains. Official reports claim that Zakhaev was killed during a Spetnaz operation specifically targeting the Ultranationalists, rumors remain that signigificant British and American assistance was used.
Split, Rise of Vorshevsky, Ultranationalist PersidencyEdit
Leading up to and following Zakhaev's death, the Ultanationalist faced split in their party over the direction the Party should go. Boris Vorshevsky, who led the Party's parliamentary wing, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR), wanted to expand on the public view of the Party and gain polular support, whereas Zakaev's protege, Vladimir Makarov, wanted to continue the terrorist attacks.
Vorshevsky's strategy would prevail, managing to drum up popular support by praising Zakhaev, exmphasising the shortcommings of the Russian Federation and harshly criticising both President Dimitri Medvedev and his predeccessor, Vladimir Putin. Vorshevsky became the presidential candidate for the Party in November 2011. Interestingly, Medvedev was nominated for the ruling United Russia party, insted of Putin as some believed. The Ultranationalist Party would be victorius in the 2012 Russian presidential election on 4 March 2012, with Vorshevsky inaugrated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012.
In 2016, a memorial statue for Zakhaev was erected in Moscow's Red Square.